Most popular mushroom cultivation methods

Most popular mushroom cultivation methods

Mushroom cultivation has become increasingly popular in recent years, with many people interested in growing their own mushrooms at home. There are several methods for cultivating mushrooms, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. In this article, we will explore some of the most common methods, including the PF tek, bulk shotgun, uncle bens, mushroom grow kits, wooden logs, and mushroom garden beds.

1. PF Tek Method

The PF Tek method is a popular method for growing mushrooms at home, especially for beginners. The PF Tek method uses sterilized jars filled with a substrate made from brown rice flour, vermiculite, and water, which is referred to as “cakes” The jars are inoculated with mushroom spores or a mycelium culture, and the mushrooms grow in the jars over the course of several weeks.

After full colonization, the cakes are “birthed” and “dunked” in water to rehydrate. They are then covered with a layer of vermiculate to increase moisture and relative humidity around the cakes before being put into a fruiting chamber to induce pinning and fruiting.

The main advantage of the PF Tek method is its simplicity. The materials required are relatively easy to obtain, and the process itself is straightforward. However, the yield from this method is typically lower than other methods, and the jars can be prone to contamination if not properly sterilized.

2. Bulk Shotgun Method

The bulk shotgun method is another popular method for growing mushrooms, especially for those looking to grow a large number of mushrooms. This method involves filling a large container with a substrate made from a mixture of grain, straw, and other materials. The container is then covered with a layer of plastic and holes are drilled into the plastic. The holes allow air to circulate, but keep the substrate moist and humid. This device is commonly referred to as the “monotub.”

The main advantage of the bulk shotgun method is its potential for high yields. The large container can support the growth of many mushrooms at one time. However, this method requires more starting spawn, a bulk substrate, and a larger space than the PF Tek method, and it can be more difficult to maintain the ideal growing conditions. Because there is more mycelium growing inside of the monotub, the demand for fresh air exchange (FAE) is much higher. This means the mushroom grower will need to open the monotub and fan often (multiple times a day) to ensure that enough oxygen is available for the mushroom fruits to develop properly. 

3. Uncle Bens Method

The uncle bens method, also known as the "Spider-Man tek," has gained popularity in recent years thanks to its simplicity and accessibility. This method involves using pre-cooked bags of Uncle Ben's rice as the substrate. The bags are sterilized and inoculated with mushroom spores or mycelium culture, and the mushrooms grow inside the bags over the course of several weeks. Those who are new to mushroom cultivation and don’t want to buy too many new equipment might want to start with this method. All you really need is some spore syringe or liquid culture syringe to inoculate your bag.

The main advantage of the uncle bens method is its simplicity and low cost. The pre-cooked bags of rice are widely available and inexpensive, and the sterilization process is relatively easy. However, this method can also be prone to contamination if not properly sterilized, and the yield may be lower than other methods.

4. Mushroom Grow Kits

Another option for cultivating mushrooms at home is to purchase a mushroom grow kit. These kits come with everything you need to grow mushrooms, including a substrate, mushroom spores or mycelium culture, and instructions. There are many different types of mushroom grow kits available, including kits for oyster mushrooms, shiitake mushrooms, and more. Other kits don’t even require you to inoculate your substrate yourself. The substrate comes pre-colonized with the species of mushroom of your desire. 

The main advantage of mushroom grow kits is their convenience. They require minimal setup and are easy to use, making them a great option for beginners. Additionally, many grow kits are designed for use in small spaces, making them ideal for apartment dwellers or those with limited outdoor space. However, the yield from grow kits may be lower than other methods, and they can be more expensive than some DIY methods.

5. Wooden Logs

Growing mushrooms on wooden logs is a popular method used by outdoor enthusiasts and hobbyists. It involves drilling holes in logs, inoculating them with spores or mycelium that are colonizing on wooden dowels, and sealing the holes with wax. The logs are then left to incubate in a shady, humid area for several months. These logs are usually left outside to colonize, depending on the climate you live in. You can also set up a mini greenhouse to store these logs as they colonize.  This method is often used to grow species such as shiitake and oyster mushrooms, but other wood-loving species such as Lion’s Mane will also do quite well in this format. This method can produce a large yield with minimal effort once the logs are established. 

Wooden logs take much longer to fully colonize, and you may get fruits before the log is fully colonized. However, you may also get multiple rounds of fruits as the mycelium continues to break down the log overtime.

6. Garden Beds

Finally, you can grow mushrooms in your garden beds by creating a suitable substrate and inoculating it with spores or mycelium. This method requires more space and preparation than the other techniques we've discussed but can be very rewarding for those who are interested in growing mushrooms outdoors. The method is done by inoculating a substrate made from straw, sawdust, or other materials and layering it in a garden bed. It's important to choose a location that is shaded and moist, and to keep the substrate well-watered. Oftentimes, growers will like to build a raised garden bed to section off the mushroom patch from the rest of their garden. You can also plant your spent mushroom blocks in your mushroom patch and they will continue to grow and break down the organic matter that you feed it. Check back often because you may get mushrooms to fruit when the climate is right! As the mushroom mycelia breaks down the organic matter, you can use the spent mushroom compost to feed the rest of your garden. 

This method is popular for growing mushrooms such as oyster mushrooms and can be an easy and cost-effective way to grow mushrooms outdoors. However, it is important to note that different mushroom species require different growing conditions and substrates, so be sure to research the specific requirements of the mushrooms you want to grow before starting your project.


There are many different methods for cultivating mushrooms, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The PF Tek method is a simple and beginner-friendly option, while the bulk shotgun method offers high yields but requires more space and materials. The Uncle Bens method is a low-cost and accessible option, but may be prone to contamination. Mushroom grow kits offer convenience and minimal setup, making them a great option for beginners or those with limited space. Regardless of the method you choose, mushroom cultivation can be a fun and rewarding hobby that allows you to grow your own. Try experimenting with different methods to find the one that works best for you, and enjoy the delicious and nutritious fruits of your labor!

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